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– Bad dreams –
Lesson 10: Bad dreams
Doctor: How long have you been having these nightmares?
Sarah: For a few months. For a few months, I have been waking up in a sweat.
Doctor: What have your dreams been about?
Sarah: I dream that I am standing on a beach. A beach I haven’t visited since I was a child.
Doctor: What have you been doing on the beach?
Sarah: I haven’t been doing anything other than standing there watching the ocean. The sun is setting and there are birds in the sky. I close my eyes and when I open them the ocean has gone.
Doctor: The ocean has gone?
Sarah: Yes, there is nothing but sand as far as I can see. I am standing in a desert!
Doctor: Hmm… That is an interesting dream, Sarah. I have studied dreams for a long time. But I have never heard a dream like this.
Interactive Video Comprehension Quiz 1:
Summary Statements Comprehension Quiz 2:
Drag and Drop Quiz 3:
When we use words of unfinished time, that is, something we have done several times in the past and continue to do:
I have been riding bikes for 15 years.
I first started riding bikes 15 years ago and still cycle today.
This form is called the present perfect continuous. Words that we may use to denote unfinished and unspecified time include: already, before, ever, far, for, many times, never, since, so, so far, yet. We often use a clause with since to show when something started in the past:
I have been riding bikes since I was a child.
I have had a puncture since Monday.
|Subject||Have/has been + Verb -ing||Rest of sentence|
|I/You/We/They||have been eating||at this restaurant for years.|
|He/She/It||has been trying||order since 10pm|
We do not use the same time expressions as we do in the simple past tense: yesterday, a week ago, last night etc.
The negative in the present perfect continuous is created using have not or has not + been + the –ing (present participle) form of the verb. We use these forms when we want to create emphasis, most commonly we use the contractions, haven’t or hasn’t.
|Subject||Haven’t/Hasn’t + been + verb –ing||Rest of sentence|
|I/You/We/They||Haven’t been sleeping||Very well.|
|He/She/It||Hasn’t been studying||As much as he should.|
For questions that will be answered with either a yes or no, start with have not/haven’t or has not/hasn’t, then choose the subject (the person or thing doing the action), followed by been + –ing (present participle) form of the verb and then the rest of the question:
|Auxiliary Verb||Subject||Been + Verb –ing||Rest of sentence|
|Hasn’t||He/She/It||Been sleeping||Very well?|
What, where, when, which, why, who, and how are also known as wh- questions. These are questions that require more information in their answers. Not just simply yes or no.
To create a wh- question, start with the Wh- word, the has/hasn’t or have/haven’t, then the subject (a person or thing that does the action), followed by been + the –ing (past participle) form of the verb and finally, the rest of the sentence:
|Wh-||Auxiliary verb||Subject||Been + Verb –ing||Rest of sentence|
|Where||Has||He/She/It||Been going||Every night?|
|Why||Haven’t||You/We/They||Been studying||For your exam?|
Hints and Tips
When spelling using the verb –ing there are a few things to make note of. Typically –ing is merely added to the end of the verb. However if the verb ends in e, we remove it before adding the –ing. Likewise with verbs ending in ie, but in this case we change the ie to a y. Also, if the last syllable of a word is consonant – vowel – consonant and is stressed, before adding –ing we double the last letter.
|Most Verbs||Verb with e ending||Verb with ie ending||Verb with c-v-c + stress end syllable|
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