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Learn English – Lesson 4 – The Cinema
Chris: What film do you want to see, Jess?
Jess: I don’t mind but I don’t want to see a horror film.
Chris: Don’t you like horror films?
Jess: No, I don’t like horror films. I don’t sleep well after I watch a horror film.
Chris: Do you like comedy?
Jess: Yes, I like comedy. Do you want to watch a comedy?
Chris: Yes, let us do that!
Jess: Do you want to get some popcorn?
Chris: No, I don’t like popcorn. I like nachos.
Jess: Now that you mention it, I prefer nachos. Okay. Do you fancy a beer?
Chris: I don’t fancy a beer. If I drink a beer I will have to go to the bathroom in the middle of the film.
Jess: Okay, good idea. Do you want to wait by the door so we can get good seats?
Chris: Let’s do that. I hope it is a good film.
Interactive Video Comprehension Quiz 1:
Summary Statements Comprehension Quiz 2:
Drag and Drop Quiz 3:
Adding the 3rd person singular (he/she/it) to the base form of the verb can alter the spelling in several ways. Typically we just add an –s to the end of the verb. However, if the verb ends in s, ss, sh, ch, x or o, we add an –es. When a verb ends in y after a consonant, the y becomes an i and we add –es.
|Most Verbs||Verb with s, ss, sh, ch, x or o ending||Verb with y ending|
The spelling and pronunciation of third person singular forms, -(e)s endings, depend upon the sound that comes before it and is determined by a one of three rules.
Rule 1: Most verbs simply add a –s to the infinitive:
Laugh → Laughs
Talk → Talks
Stop → Stops
This spelling is pronounced /s/
Rule 2: Verbs that end in a consonant + y, the y becomes an i and add -es:
Cry → Cries
Hurry → Hurries
Reply → Replies
However, should the verb end in a vowel + y only the s is added to the end:
Play → Plays
Enjoy → Enjoys
Stay → Stays
Sounds that are produced by the vibration of the vocal chords are called voiced sounds. These are all the vowels and the sounds: b/ g / j (as in judge) / l / m / n / r /, voiced th (as in bathe), / v / ng (as in bang) / zh sound (as in measure) / z (as in buzz).
Most third person singular forms that end in these sounds have the s ending, the sounds /zh/, /z/, and /j/ are the exceptions and end in –es.
Receive → Receives
Learn → Learns
Call → Calls
Regardless of the spelling, any –(e)s ending that falls under this rule is pronounced /z/
Rule 3: We add –es when the verb ends in the sounds -s, -z, -ch, -sh, -j or -x. Except for the exceptions from Rule 2 (-z and –j), these are voiceless or unvoiced sounds. These are sounds that are produced with no vibration of the vocal chords.
Miss → Misses
Wash → Washes
Buzz → Buzzes
The spelling in this particular case does two things. Firstly it makes the pronunciation /Iz/ and secondly it produces a separate syllable unlike the last two rules which only added a sound.
Fix (1 syllable) → Fixes (2 syllables)
Push (1 syllable) → Pushes (2 syllables)
Exercise (3 syllables) → Exercises (4 syllables)
Spelling exceptions to these rules are :
Have → Has
Go → Goes
Do → Does
When spelling using the verb –ing there are a few things to make note of. Typically –ing is merely added to the end of the verb. However if the verb ends in e, we remove it before adding the –ing. Likewise with verbs ending in ie, but in this case we change the ie to a y. Also, if the last syllable of a word is consonant – vowel – consonant and is stressed, before adding –ing we double the last letter.
|Most Verbs||Verb with e ending||Verb with ie ending||Verb with c-v-c + stress end syllable|
When we ask a question that is answered Yes or No we use the auxiliary verbs, Do and Does. We use does to make questions in the third person and we use do for the others. In forming a sentence with this present simple form, we can use this formula:
|Auxiliary||Subject||Verb (base form)||Rest of sentence|
When replying to such questions is the positive we use do or does (in the third person). In the negative we use usually use the contraction don’t or doesn’t (in the third person).
|Form||Subject||To do||Rest of sentence|
|Form||Subject||To do||Rest of sentence|
|Yes||I/You/We/They||do||teach in Spain|
|Yes||He/She/It||does||teach in Spain|
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