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– The National Health Service –
Learn English – Lesson 72 – The National Health Service
No matter how careful we are, no matter how much we strive to make our domestic environment as safe as possible, accidents at home can still happen. By taking precautions we can certainly decrease the incidents of major accidents within the household and increasing awareness and knowledge of aspects such as first aid in the home can help us deal effectively with the health and well-being of our families. For all the precautions taken, the occasional accident can occur. It is in retrospect that we see what can be done to prevent it from happening again.
“If we had bought some table cloth clips, he wouldn’t have pulled at it”
“If he hadn’t left his shoes in the middle of the hallway, he wouldn’t have tripped on them”
“If I had worn oven gloves, I wouldn’t have burnt my hand”
“I wouldn’t have sprained my ankle if I had checked the ladder before using it”
Despite all our efforts there may be occasions where your child or family member will need to see a GP or even visit Accident & Emergency. Fortunately, the UK is the home to the National Health Service (NHS), a free health care system (though some prescription charges may be applied) that was founded nearly 70 years ago.
A Labour/socialist government elected in 1945 implemented recommendations made in the Beveridge Report, a 1942 report on Social Insurance and Allied Services, chaired by Economist William Beveridge. “Comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease » was the key element to the structure. Beveridge perceived “Five Giant Evils” in society, Squalor, Ignorance, Want, Idleness, and Disease and the report offered three guiding principles:
Proposals for the future should not be limited by « sectional interests » in learning from experience and that a « revolutionary moment in the world’s history is a time for revolutions, not for patching ».
Social insurance is only one part of a « comprehensive policy of social progress ». The five giants on the road to reconstruction were Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness.
Policies of social security « must be achieved by co-operation between the State and the individual », with the state securing the service and contributions. The state « should not stifle incentive, opportunity, responsibility; in establishing a national minimum, it should leave room and encouragement for voluntary action by each individual to provide more than that minimum for himself and his family ».
The services were initially to be funded through general taxation and National Insurance and the proposal was for a flat rate contribution rate and a flat rate benefit for everyone.
The Labour Government, after their victory in 1945, proceeded to implement many social policies, including the Family Allowances Act 1945, National Insurance Act 1946, National Health Service Act 1946, and Pensions (Increase) Act 1947, amongst others. This became known as the welfare state and was sealed with the introduction of NHS in its entirety founded in 1948, based on legislation passed in 1946, 1947 and 1948, and the National Insurance Act 1949.
Interactive Video Comprehension Quiz 1:
Summary Statements Comprehension Quiz 2:
Drag and Drop Quiz 3:
These are the three conditional clauses:
The past perfect part of the 3rd Conditional can also be reworded. We remove the word “If” and change the order of the subject and the auxiliary verb.
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