Lesson 74 – Money, Money, Money – Causatives

Cours d’anglais gratuit B2




IN YOUR LANGUAGE (Top right > Select language > Click on the flags).


  • The money created by banks
  • The cash machine
  • The shop keeper
  • It is what flashes up
  • Check your balance
  • Allowed to create
  • In order to
  • From your bank
  • Many of us use
  • To arrange our affairs
  • To pay our bills
  • Growing by more than
  • Over 50% of the population
  • This means that you
  • A small percentage of the money
  • To create a substitute for actual money
  • A safe, secure and efficient system
  • To understand the implications
  • We should take a look at
  • It earned their profit
  • The cost of producing
  • To anticipate a demand for
  • They were bought for their face value
  • Loan the money out to
  • Charge interest
  • The profits gained
  • Paid to them by
  • To create more money
  • To help fund health care
  • Keeping taxes down
  • When a customer approaches
  • He makes a claim for a loan
  • He does not have to give
  • It creates a deposit account
  • The amount the customer wishes to lend
  • For each loan
  • Taking out a mortgage
  • To buy a house
  • Giving them thousands of pounds
  • You do not have to pay anything
  • Council services
  • Taxes are raised
  • To keep up with public demand
  • To pay for these services
  • Legally allowed to
  • They would deposit them
  • To give the customer a
  • Stating the value of
  • You accept the paper receipts as payment
  • The effort of
  • As a result
  • Only a small percentage of
  • They realised that they could
  • The remainder of the money
  • Earning themselves a profit
  • They could now lend out much more



-Money, Money, Money-

Lesson 74 – Money, Money, Money

The money created by banks isn’t the paper money that we receive from the cash machine and hand over to the shopkeeper. The Central Bank cash makes up only 3% of existing money. The other 97% is what flashes up on the cash machine screen when you check your balance. Banks are allowed to create money in order to dispense loans, mortgages etc. and is simply an IOU from your bank to you. In this technological, internet age many of us use internet banking to arrange our affairs, pay our bills etc. E-commerce sales are growing by more than 19% every year and could reach a staggering $1.4 trillion by 2015, with over 50% of the population of the U.S. internet shopping regularly.

This means that you will likely handle a small percentage of the money you earn with the rest being passed digitally from company to company. This digital cash can effectively create a substitute for actual money which, in theory, sounds like a safe, secure and efficient system. However, to understand the implications of a paper money free world we should take a look at how the central bank created money and how the high street banks once earned their profit.

Let’s say, for example, the central bank creates a €10 note. The cost of producing such a note may be €2. A high street bank would anticipate a demand for cash from their customers and purchase notes from the central bank. These notes were bought for their face value €10 for €10. The high street bank would then loan the money out to their customers and charge interest. This interest earned would be the profits gained by the bank. In the meantime, the central bank would take €2 from the money paid to them by the high street bank and use that to create more money, the excess €8 would be used to help fund health care, education and other council services, keeping taxes down.

Now, when a customer approaches a high street bank and makes a claim for a loan, the bank does not have to give the customer actual money, rather, it creates a deposit account to the amount the customer wishes to lend. For each loan that a bank makes in this way creates new money. In a report made by the Bank of England is was stated:

“Commercial banks create money, in the form of bank deposits, by making new loans. When a bank makes a loan, for example to someone taking out a mortgage to buy a house, it does not typically do so by giving them thousands of pounds worth of banknotes. Instead, it credits their bank account with a bank deposit of the size of the mortgage. At that moment, new money is created.”

Commercial banks do not have to pay anything towards council services and so the lessening demand for “actual” money means that taxes are raised in order to keep up with public demand for such services. Where funding isn’t generated to pay for these services, there must be cuts.

Before 1844, only the government was legally allowed to create metal coins. Rather than people carrying around all these coins they would deposit them with a jeweller or a goldsmith who would in turn give the customer a piece of paper stating the value of the coins deposited. For security, the shopkeeper would take the coins to a trusted bank. Eventually, most shopkeepers would simply accept the paper receipts as payment, saving the customer the effort of depositing and withdrawing constantly.

As a result, only a small percentage of deposits were ever withdrawn. Noticing this, the shopkeepers realised that they could lend out the remainder of the money and charge interest. Thus earning themselves a profit. Further to this, being that many shops would now accept the paper receipts, the goldsmiths and jewellers were able to give borrowers said receipts rather than the coins. Even if the shopkeeper had only 1,000 pounds in the vault, they could now lend out much more.

The power to create a substitute for “actual” money was borne and banks were allowed to create money from nowhere.


Interactive Video Comprehension Quiz 1

Summary Statements Comprehension Quiz 2

Drag and Drop Quiz 3: 




The structures have + something + verb in past perfect is used to describe things that are done for us without our help.

I had my hair cut yesterday. (no matter who did it)

We will have our car repaired next week by a friend of our. (the by-agent can be left out as well)


To express an obligation you can use various forms, depending on how strong the obligation is.

  • The weakest form is with should, including an advice to do the right thing.

You should get the roof fixed before it rains again.

  • With to be supposed to you express an obligation that may differ from what actually happens.

He is supposed to go to school every day (instead of ditching classes all week).

  • You use to have to when the obligation does not come from yourself and when you want to use it with other tenses.

I am ill so my mother told me that I have to go to the doctor.

They had to wash up the dishes because their dishwasher was broken.

  • Must is used for very strong advice.

You must text me as soon as you have got your results.

  • To express prohibitions you can use different modal verbs and phrases. In the present there are can’t, mustn’t, not let, to be not allowed to, don’t allow (someone) to. In the past you may use couldn’t, didn’t let, wasn’t allowed to, didn’t allow (someone) to.

You can’t eat that apple. It is already rotten.

They mustn’t play on the street, it is too dangerous.

She didn’t let me go out with my friends when I was younger.

If I receive a bad mark in my final exam I won’t be allowed to take a year off.

His parents didn’t allow him to keep going to his football training.

  • To express permission you can use different verbs. Can, let, to be allowed to are used in normal language usage.

They can see each other on the weekend if they want to.

She let him drink the beer that she could not finish.

You are only allowed to smoke in the smoking area over there.

  • Could and may can be used in formal situations as well.

Could you pass me the salt, please.

May I take this chair, please?

  • To stress that there is no obligation use don’t have to, don’t need to, needn’t.

You don’t have to do the washing up now, we will do it later.

They don’t need to learn all the vocabulary, it is too much for them.

You needn’t work tomorrow. It’s a bank holiday.


Cardinal numbers indicate a quantity. To indicate thousands, you can use a gap or a comma (Not a full stop).

1 000 or 1,000

100, 1 000 or 1 000 000 only exist in a singular form. (Unless used in expressions such as: “thousands of fans came to the concert”, “millions of singles were sold in the first few months of its release”)

Careful with “a billion” (1 000 000 000): in Spanish it is “mil millones” and a “trillion” (1 000 000 000 000): in Spanish it is “un billon”


Ordinal numbers indicate a position in a sequence. First, Second, Third etc. To the following numbers we add “-th”.

To obtain the abbreviated form, take the last two letters of the full word:

First → 1st

Second → 2nd

Third → 3rd

Twenty fifth → 25th

1 one 1st first
2 two 2nd second
3 three 3rd third
4 four 4th fourth
5 five 5th fifth
6 six 6th sixth
7 seven 7th seventh
8 eight 8th eighth
9 nine 9th ninth
10 ten 10th tenth
11 eleven 11th eleventh
12 twelve 12th twelfth
13 thirteen 13th thirteenth
14 fourteen 14th fourteenth
15 fifteen 15th fifteenth
16 sixteen 16th sixteenth
17 seventeen 17th seventeenth
18 eighteen 18th eighteenth
19 nineteen 19th nineteenth
20 twenty 20th twentieth
21 twenty one 21st twenty first
22 twenty two 22th twenty second
30 thirty 30th thirtieth
40 forty 40th fortieth
50 fifty 50th fiftieth
60 sixty 60th sixtieth
70 seventy 70th seventieth
80 eighty 80th eightieth
90 ninety 90th ninetieth
100 a/one hundred 100th hundredth
101 a/one hundred and one 101st hundred and first
200 two hundred 200 two hundredth
1 000 a/one thousand 1 000th thousandth
10 000 ten thousand 10 000th ten thousandth
100 000 a/one hundred thousand 100 000th a/one hundred thousandth


  • Related Pronunciation Video Lesson and interactive exercise(s):


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