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-History of computers-
Learn English – Lesson 78 – History of Computers
Computers and technology play a huge part in 21st century life. From GPS systems to smart phones, from ATMs to laptop computers, it is difficult to conceive any aspect of our life that does not require or involve technology in some way. It is interesting to consider how this all began.
It is difficult to pinpoint how exactly the term “computer” first came into use, though one of the earliest uses was to describe a person who performed calculations. First recorded in the 17th century, this definition stayed in use for about 200 years. With the conceptualisation of the Difference Engine in 1822, by Charles Babbage, this definition was shifted to describe a machine that was capable of computing several sets of numbers and making hard copies of the results. Unfortunately, because of funding issues, Charles Babbage was unable to see the full development of his concept in his lifetime. However, in 1910, Henry Babbage, his son, was able to complete a portion of this machine and was able to perform basic calculations.
In 1936, Alan Turing proposed The Turing machine which became the foundation for theories about computing and computers. Turing was an all-rounder, a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, computer scientist, mathematical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner. Without the formalisation of his concepts of « algorithm » and « computation » we wouldn’t have the computers we use today. He is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
His contributions extend further to his work as a cryptanalyst for the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, during World War II. Having devised a number of techniques for breaking ciphers and played a key part in the success of the Enigma machine in cracking coded messages. As a result, the Allies were able to defeat the Nazis in many crucial battles. Prime Minister, Winston Churchill stated that Alan Turing had made the single biggest contribution to Allied victory in the war against Nazi Germany.
The American company, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), announced in 1953, the first computer for mass production, the 701, although it wasn’t until 1981 that IBM released its first personal computer, code named the Acorn and possessing a meer 8088 processor and 16 KB of memory.
In the meantime, many other companies where designing and releasing personal computers:
Compaq – In March 1983, Compaq released its first computer and the first 100% IBM compatible computer the « Compaq Portable. »
Dell – In 1985, Dell introduced its first computer, the « Turbo PC. »
Hewlett Packard – In 1966, Hewlett Packard released its first general computer, the « HP-2115. »
NEC – In 1958, NEC builds its first computer the « NEAC 1101. »
Toshiba – In 1954, Toshiba introduces its first computer, the « TAC » digital computer.
In 1976, Steve Wozniak designed what is now known as the Apple I. Steve Jobs convinced him to try to sell the computer but it was not until 1977 that the Apple truly hit the market. The design of the Apple II, which included color graphics, and pre-assembled availability saw the sale of Apple computers increase dramatically.
However, by the 1990s, the computer market was saturated by personal computers, most of which utilised Windows 3.0, which was able to run on almost every personal computer. Apple computers were not compatible with Windows 3.0 and started to see a steady decline in sales. With the DOS system being used by so many PCs, software developers like Microsoft were able to capitalise on a growing market.
The next decade saw a rocky road for Apple, despite the introduction of the PowerMac in 1994. The company was finding it difficult to keep up with Bill Gates’ Windows ´95. In 1997, Microsoft and Apple established a 5 year patent cross licence, that seemed to serve Microsoft better than it did Apple. Nevertheless, Apple were able to stay on the market and years later produce many machines that are very competitive in the current market, such as IPods and IPhones.
Interactive Video Comprehension Quiz 1:
Summary Statements Comprehension Quiz 2:
Drag and Drop Quiz 3:
Most sentences are active. But there are also “passive forms” which need to be mastered in order to speak English correctly. From the “active form “ to the “passive form” we notice certain changes:
|ACTIVE FORM||PASSIVE FORM|
|Subject doing action + active verb + object receiving action.||Subject receiving action + passive verb + by + doing action.|
|These artists will sing a duo.||A duo will be sung by these artists.|
|ACTIVE TENSE||PASSIVE VERB TENSE|
|Simple Present||Jane cleans the flat.||The flat is cleaned by Jane.|
|Present Continuous||Jane is cleaning the flat.||The flat is being cleaned by Jane.|
|Simple Past||Jane cleaned the flat.||The flat was cleaned by Jane.|
|Past Continuous||Jane was cleaning the flat.||The flat was being cleaned by Jane.|
|Present Perfect||Jane has cleaned the flat.||The flat has been cleaned by Jane.|
|Present Perfect Continuous||Jane has been cleaning the flat.||The flat has been being cleaned by Jane.|
|Past Perfect||Jane had cleaned the flat.||The flat had been cleaned by Jane.|
|Past Perfect Continuous||Jane had been cleaning the flat.||The flat had been cleaned by Jane.|
|Simple Future (will)||Jane will clean the flat.||The flat will be cleaned by Jane.|
|Simple Future (be going to)||Jane is going to clean the flat.||The flat is going to be cleaned by Jane.|
|Future Continuous (will)||Jane will be cleaning the flat.||The flat will be being cleaned by Jane.|
|Future Continuous (be going to)||Jane is going to be cleaningthe flat.||The flat is going to be being cleaned by Jane.|
|Future Perfect (will)||Jane will have cleaned the flat.||The flat will have been cleaned by Jane.|
|Future Perfect (be going to)||Jane is going to have cleaned the flat.||The flat is going to have been cleaned by Jane.|
|Future Perfect Continuous (will)||Jane will have been cleaning the flat.||The flat will have been cleaned by Jane.|
|Future Perfect Continuous (be going to)||Jane is going to have been cleaning the flat.||The flat is going to have been cleaned by Jane.|
|Used to||Jane used to clean the flat.||The flat used to be cleaned by Jane.|
|Would Always||Jane would always clean the flat.||The flat would always be cleaned by Jane.|
|Future in the past (would)||Jane would clean the flat.||The flat would be cleaned by Jane.|
|Future in the past (was going to)||Jane was going to clean the flat.||The flat was going to be cleaned by Jane.|
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