Lesson 97 – Global Warming – Clauses of result

LEVEL C2 - GLOBAL WARMING


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VOCABULARY

 

 

  • Fossil fuels
  • Anaerobic decomposition
  • Carbon
  • Coal
  • Petroleum
  • Natural gas
  • The use of coal as a fuel
  • It predates recorded history
  • To run furnaces
  • The melting of metal ore
  • Exploitation
  • Oil lamps
  • Large-scale industrial development
  • Supplanted
  • Water-driven mills
  • Combustion
  • Peat
  • The largest source
  • Emissions of carbon dioxide
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Radiative forcing
  • Global warming
  • The average temperature
  • Earth's climate system
  • Climate change
  • External forcings
  • Maize
  • On a global scale
  • Low latitude countries
  • To face the greatest risks
  • At its core
  • Food security
  • A scientific consensus
  • Scientific skeptics
  • Underlying
  • Lobbyists
  • Downplayed
  • Linking tobacco to lung cancer
  • To discredit
  • Scientific research
  • At an accelerated rate
  • Coastal communities
  • Global sea-level rise
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Periods of drought
  • Soil moisture
  • They lobbied against...
  • To cripple the economy

 

LESSON 97 DIALOGUE

 

- Global Warming -

 

 

 

 

Lesson 97 - Global Warming

Fossil fuels are formed by natural processes such as the anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. They contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The use of coal as a fuel predates recorded history and was used to run furnaces for the melting of metal ore. Commercial exploitation of petroleum for use in oil lamps began in the 19th century.

 

The utilisation of fossil fuels has enabled large-scale industrial development and largely supplanted water-driven mills, as well as the combustion of wood or peat for heat. The burning of fossil fuels is the largest source of emissions of carbon dioxide, which is one of the greenhouse gases that allows radiative forcing and contributes to global warming. Global warming refers to the rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and, along with climate change, its related effects. The climate system can respond to changes in external forcings which can "push" the climate in the direction of warming or cooling. The effects of climate change due to warming have been detected worldwide, including an impact on the production of wheat and maize on a global scale. Many more risks are expected in the future and all regions could possibly experience negative impacts. Low latitude countries are expected to face the greatest risks, at its core, the large risk to global and regional food security.

 

Climate change, however, is a very complex phenomenon, and its full-scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance. But each year scientists learn more and agree that certain consequences are likely to occur if current trends continue. In addition to impacting our water resources, agriculture, and ecosystems, it is perceived that climate change could also pose a threat to health, including

 

  • Significant increases in the risk of illness and death related to extreme heat.
  • Diseases transmitted by food, water, and insects.
  • A range of climate-related health effects affecting vulnerable members of the populous, i.e. children and the elderly

Studies have shown the Greenland’s Ice Sheet is melting at an accelerated rate and that the melting season is increasing. The melting has implications for sea life, fisheries, and coastal communities worldwide, by contributing to global sea-level rise and adding freshwater to ocean ecosystems. If the Greenland ice sheet, which is nearly the size of Mexico, melted completely it would raise global sea level by around 23 feet. This, together with the retreat and subsequent melting of glaciers such as the Jakobshavn Isbræ have begun to expose rock, soil, and ocean waters, which in turn causes further melting, as those darker surfaces absorb more heat.

 

In drier regions, evapotranspiration may produce periods of drought and a lack of enough soil moisture in agricultural areas. Southern Africa, the Sahel region of Africa, southern Asia, the Mediterranean, and the U.S. Southwest, for example, are getting drier. Scientists expect the amount of land affected by drought to grow by mid-century and water resources in affected areas to decline as much as 30 percent.

 

Although there is a scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels is having an impact on our climate system, some have attempted to slow global efforts to prevent future global warming. However there are no credible scientific skeptics challenging the underlying scientific theory of climate change. The biggest resistance to the dangers of global warming come from lobbyists. Much in the same way that lobbyists downplayed the scientific evidence linking tobacco to lung cancer in order to prevent or delay the introduction of regulation, so too do lobbyists attempt to discredit the scientific research by creating doubt and manipulating debate. Some major peak business organisations have actively lobbied against government action on climate change, claiming regulating carbon emissions will cripple the economy. They oppose any federal or state government actions regarding climate change that could adversely affect the international competitiveness.

 

Although some studies suggest that the impact of global warming will be revealed more prominently come 2050, some scientists believe that we are witnessing a pause in global warming. Whether it will resume and when is as yet unknown. Scientific methodology cannot produce a convincing level of certainty, though no one can deny that levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have increased as fossil fuels have been burned. Whether these carbon emissions are having a significant effect on global temperatures, no one knows for sure.

COMPREHENSION QUIZZES (3 TO COMPLETE)

 

Interactive Video Comprehension Quiz 1

Summary Statements Comprehension Quiz 2

Drag and Drop Quiz 3: 

GRAMMAR PRACTICE - CLAUSES OF RESULT

USE:

  • We use “clauses of result” to refer to motives or results of an action or a fact.

FORM:

  • We use SO and SUCH in the main clause to explain the result given in the subordinate clause which begins with “THAT”.
  • We use “SINCE”, “AS”, “AS LONG AS” and “NOW THAT” to introduce the subordinate clause of a sentence which explains the verb of the main clause.

 

She is so efficient that she finishes hours before the others.

Frank is such an efficient worker that he has received a promotion.

We thought it best to leave, since we were tired.

I will carry on coming as long as I feel that I am making progress.

Now that she has quit, the position is available again.

 

MEANING EXAMPLE COMMENTS
SUCH…THAT…

SO…THAT…

To explain the reason for an action or fact It was such a disaster that I had to do it again.

They are such close friends that they shared the secret.

She is so popular that she was elected prom queen.She drives so quickly that she scares everyone.

SUCH + adjectives or nouns

SO + adjectives or adverbs

SINCE

NOW THAT

AS LONG AS

To introduce the reason for an action, a state or a described fact.

To introduce a new condition or a recent condition which explains the action, state or described fact.

To introduce a condition necessary for an action, state or fact to be carried out

Since you have such good grades, you are no longer grounded.

You are no longer grounded, since you have such good grades.

Now that you have your driving licence, you can drive my car.You can drive my car, now that you have your driving licence.

 

As long as you give it back, you can borrow it.

You can borrow it as long as you give it back.

Conjunction + subordinate clause + main clauseor

Main clause + conjunction + subordinate clause

 

SUCH/SO…THAT:

  • Are used in the main clause
  • The construction is: subject + be + SO + adjective/adverb + THAT + subordinate clause
  • With “SUCH” one mustn't forget to use the indefinite article “A(N)” which is placed before the adjective, with quantitative nouns in the singular form.

 

SINCE/NOW THAT/AS LONG AS:

  • Are used in subordinate clauses
  • Both clauses are generally separated by a comma

PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE

 

  • Related Pronunciation Video Lesson and interactive exercise(s):

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